Science fiction elements include, A time setting in the future, in alternative timelines, a spatial setting or scenes in outer space, on other worlds, or on subterranean earth.
Characters that include aliens, mutants, androids, or humanoid robots, futuristic or plausible technology such as ray guns, teleportation machines, and humanoid computers. Scientific principles that are new or that contradict accepted physical laws, for time travel, wormholes. New and different political or social systems, e. A product of the budding Age of Reason and the development of science itself. Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Keplers work the first science fiction story and it depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earths motion is seen from there.
Later, Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about a flight to the moon, more examples appeared throughout the 19th century. Wells The War of the Worlds describes an invasion of late Victorian England by Martians using tripod fighting machines equipped with advanced weaponry and it is a seminal depiction of an alien invasion of Earth. In the late 19th century, the scientific romance was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction.
This produced additional offshoots, such as the novella Flatland, the term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon. In the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine. She is also an animal rights activist, environmentalist, and widow of the Indian politician Sanjay Gandhi and she has been a minister in four governments, and has authored a number of books in the areas of etymology, law and animal welfare.
Her father was Indian Army officer Lt.
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Maneka eventually married Sanjay, the son of the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi one year later on 23 September , the Emergency saw the rise of Sanjay into politics and Maneka was seen with him almost every time on his tours as she helped him in campaigns. It is often said that during the Emergency, Sanjay Gandhi had total control over his mother, Maneka Gandhi founded the news magazine Surya which later played a key role in promotion of the Congress party after its defeat in the election following the Emergency.
She went to court to fight an attempt by the government in power at the time to confiscate her passport and she gave birth to a son in named Feroze after his paternal grandfather. Her mother-in-law added the name Varun, Maneka was just twenty-three years old and her son just days old, when her husband, Sanjay, died in an air crash. Manekas relationship with Indira Gandhi gradually disintegrated after Sanjays death and they would argue with one another.
She was eventually forced out of 1, Safdarjung Road, the prime ministers residence after a fallout with Indira and she founded the Rashtriya Sanjay Manch along with Akbar Ahmed Dumpy. The party primarily focused on youth empowerment and employment and it won four out of five seats in the Elections in Andhra Pradesh.
Maneka contested the Amethi constituency from Uttar Pradesh for the general election for the Loksabha, singhs Janata Dal and became the General Secretary. In November Maneka won her first election to Parliament and became a Minister of State as the Minister for Environment, Maneka Gandhi is a self-described environmentalist and animal rights leader in India.
She has earned awards and acclaim. She was appointed chairwoman of the Committee for the Purpose of Control, under her direction, CPCSEA members carried unannounced inspections of laboratories where animals are used for scientific research were conducted. She currently chairs the Jury of International Energy Globe Foundation which meets annually in Austria to award the best environmental innovations of the year and she is a member of the Eurosolar Board and the Wuppertal Institute, Germany.
Climate Progress: Science Sunday: “The economics (or lack thereof) of aerosol geoengineering”
Helsingin Sanomat — Helsingin Sanomat, abbreviated HS and colloquially known as Hesari, is the largest subscription newspaper in Finland and the Nordic countries, owned by Sanoma. Except after certain holidays, it is published daily and its name derives from that of the Finnish capital, Helsinki, where it is published.
Founded as the organ of the Young Finnish Party, the paper has been politically independent, Helsingin Sanomat has a long history as a family business, owned by the Erkko family. It is currently owned by the Sanoma media group also owns Ilta Sanomat. The relationship between the owners of Helsingin Sanomat and Finlands government have sometimes been close, for instance, during the run-up to the Winter War, Eljas Erkko was at the same time the papers publisher and Finlands foreign minister.
Helsingin Sanomat is published daily in Finnish in tabloid format with the exception of the days after public holidays when the paper does not appear, the only exception to this is the day after Finnish independence day when the revenue from Christmas advertising ensures an edition after that public holiday.
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The newspaper was published in broadsheet format until 6 January , the paper also has a monthly supplement named Kuukausiliite, and a weekly TV guide and entertainment-oriented supplement named Nyt. Between and there were also both Finnish and English-language online newspaper editions, Helsingin Sanomat is published daily for the iPad. Content of Helsingin Sanomat can be accessed through mobile devices as well. The circulation of Helsingin Sanomat was , copies in , in the period of —96 the paper had a circulation of , copies.
Its circulation was , copies in , making it the largest paper in the country, in its daily circulation was , on weekdays and , on Sundays.
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In the daily had a circulation of , copies, the same year it was also the largest paper in terms of readership. The paper is a significant factor in Finnish society and in public opinion, pertti Klemola, a Finnish journalist and scholar, once called it a state authority, an institution with its own independent social and political will.
Helsingin Sanomat strongly advocated Finland joining the European Union in the run-up to the decision to do so in and it has also openly expressed support for Finlands membership of NATO. Integrated Authority File — The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues.
It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly also by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It also comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format.
Modelling the size distribution of geoengineered stratospheric aerosols. Joseph, Renu; Zeng, Ning Climate 24 8 , S. The Asilomar conference on geoengineering had been touted as a potentially historic event.
These general principles are illustrated by applying them to the case of climate change mitigation, one of the most interdisciplinary of public policy issues. The economics or lack thereof of aerosol geoengineering. Climatic Change , pp. What are scientifically sound, economically viable, and ethically defendable strategies to manage these climate risks? Ratified international agreements call for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Recent proposals, however, call for a different approach: